By Mircea Dragoman, Daniela Dragoman
This ebook is devoted to the hot two-dimensional one-atomic-layer-thick fabrics equivalent to graphene, metal chalcogenides, silicene and different 2nd fabrics. The booklet describes their major actual homes and purposes in nanoelctronics, photonics, sensing and computing. a wide a part of the ebook bargains with graphene and its outstanding actual houses. one other vital a part of the ebook bargains with semiconductor monolayers akin to MoS2 with awesome purposes in photonics, and electronics. Silicene and germanene are the atom-thick opposite numbers of silicon and germanium with awesome purposes in electronics and photonics that are nonetheless unexplored. attention of two-dimensional electron gasoline units finish the remedy. The physics of 2DEG is defined intimately and the purposes in THz and IR quarter are discussed.
Both authors are operating presently on those second fabrics constructing conception and applications.
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Additional info for 2D Nanoelectronics: Physics and Devices of Atomically Thin Materials
47), n0 ﬃ 1011 cm−2, lÃ ¼ l½1 þ ðlVD =vsat LÞ and c ¼ e2 =ph2 v2F is a constant. Inversely, if the mobility is not known, it can be extracted from DC measurements of ID ðVD ; VG Þ according to the formula l¼ 1 @ID =W en @VD =L ð1:48Þ We consider further some examples (Dragoman and Dragoman 2014). The ID À VD curve consists of three regions, as shown in Fig. 18: (I) the sublinear region, (II) the saturation region, where the Dirac point is retrieved at VD ¼ VG , and (III) the superlinear region, which originate in the lack of a graphene monolayer bandgap.
The origin of the NDR was elucidated in (Sharma et al. 2015), as the result of the competition between the ﬁeld dependence of the carrier density and the drift velocity. This is not, however, the only mechanism for generating NDR. In ballistic graphene FETs with oblique gates (Dragoman et al. 2014a), the NDR is due to an abrupt drop to zero of the transmission coefﬁcient of carriers over a certain range of drain voltage values, VD. This decrease in transmission produces a minimum in the ID − VD dependence, the drain current ID being determined by the transmission coefﬁcient via the Landauer formula.
Nowadays, two methods are intensively used. The ﬁrst one, in which graphene is grown via CVD on Cu substrates, is most intensively used because it is able to produce graphene on 4-in. and even 6-in. Si wafers by transfer methods, but the quality of graphene still needs to be improved. The second method, of epitaxial graphene growth starting from SiC is also very promising, but implies very expensive equipments and high working temperatures. The quality of graphene is comparable with the CVD method, but large graphene areas are still expensive to be produced.
2D Nanoelectronics: Physics and Devices of Atomically Thin Materials by Mircea Dragoman, Daniela Dragoman