By Arthur Israel Vogel
The most effective books there's instructing sensible natural chemistry. The 3rd version of this e-book (first released in 1956) is de facto of far better use to the pastime chemist, because it doesn't utilize any hideously pricey glassware/apparatus or unique reagents or catalysts.
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Extra resources for A Text-book of Practical Organic Chemistry Including Qualitative Organic Analysis. Third Edition
The composition, however, depends upon the pressure at which the distillation is conducted and also rarely corresponds to stoichiometric proportions. The methods adopted in practice will of necessity depend uppn the nature of the components of the binary azeotropic mixture, and include :— (1) Distillation with a third substance which alters the vapour pressure ratios in the azeotrope. This method is of particular value in industry for the production of absolute ethyl alcohol from the azeotropic mixture containing 95-6 per cent, of alcohol or from aqueous alcohol.
The mixture is dissolved in a suitable solvent, the whole frozen, and then aUowed to melt slowly in a centrifuge in order that the successive fractions may be removed as they are formed. The various melts are then fractionally distilled. If necessary, the fractional crystallisation may be repeated. 1,6. Steam Distillation. Distillation of a Pair of Immiscible Liquids. Steam distillation is a method for the isolation and purification of substances. It is applicable to liquids which are usually regarded as completely immiscible or to liquids which are miscible to only a very limited extent.
P. p. 63-7° EuTEcncs 16-0° 24-0° 8-0° 19-9° 36° 80-6° 50- 2° 30-3° (66-5 %A). (32% 4) (76% 4), (31 %^4) (94 % A), (42% A) (60% A), (19 %A) 1,15. System in which the two components form a compound with an incongruent melting point. In this system the compound formed Composition Fig. 1, U, 1. 32 PRACTICAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY [I, is so unstable that it decomposes completely at a temperature below its melting point, so that the solid cannot be in equilibrium with a liquid of the same composition as itself—in other words, it has no true melting point.
A Text-book of Practical Organic Chemistry Including Qualitative Organic Analysis. Third Edition by Arthur Israel Vogel